Original scientific paper                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.17508/CJFST.2021.13.2.13

The effect of wheat variety, fermentation and incorporation of ingredients on the texture profile, colour and sensory attributes of whole wheat bread

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5394-6962Bernard Rwubatse1*, Michael W. Okoth1, Angela A. Andago1, Sophia Ngala1, Anastase Kimonyo2, Clement Bitwayiki2

1University of Nairobi, Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Technology
2University of Rwanda, Department of Food Science and Technology

Article history:
Received: February 24, 2020
Accepted: September 2, 2020
Whole grain flour is gaining an increase in demand for its nutritive and health promotion values in different food products for human consumption worldwide. Whole flour from wheat grain varieties (Gihundo, Kibatsi, Nyaruka and Reberaho), spent coffee grounds (SCG), juices of lemon fruit (L) and rosemary leaves (R), and dough fermentation were assessed for their impact on the texture profile, colour and sensory attributes of bread. Wheat grains (sampled from the stores of Rwanda Agriculture and Animal Resources Development Board, Kinigi, Rwanda) were conditioned to 15.5% moisture content and were wholly milled. The mixture of 200 g whole wheat flour, 4% spent coffee grounds, 1% juice of lemon fruit and 1% juice of rosemary leaves were fermented by using 2% instant dry yeast at 34 °C, 60% relative humidity (RH) for 60 min and at 39 °C, 85% RH for 120 min, separately. The dough was baked at 180 °C for 20 min. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance using SAS System. Treatment means were separated using Tukey’s test and the least significant difference was accepted at p ≤ 0.05. The control bread was made for 60 min of fermentation without incorporation of SCG and LR. The control bread was harder than the bread containing SCG and SCG+LR with the same time of fermentation. The long fermentation and the inclusion of SCG and SCG+LR in doughs, caused the supplemented bread to have lower L*, a* and b* values than control bread. Low L*, a* and b* values indicate minimum darkness, redness and yellowness of bread.  Aroma, taste and appearance of SCG+LR bread from doughs fermented for 120 min were the most liked. Whole wheat bread obtained satisfied consumers’ preferences. Therefore, the application of spent coffee grounds, juices of lemon fruit and rosemary leaves in bread making represents a good opportunity at low cost.
sensory attributes
whole wheat bread